The Hay Alert Website is available to help farmers impacted by Hurricane Florence secure winter hay supplies.
Dr. Matt Poore, NCSU Extension. This document was reviewed by Dan Wells and Bryan Blinson
Producers experiencing hay and pasture losses as a result of Hurricane Florence will find the Hay Alert website a useful tool in securing sufficient hay for their winter needs. This site was originally developed in response to the drought of 2007, and it was updated in 2016 during the Hurricane Matthew response. The website was developed and is managed by the NC Department of Agriculture in collaboration with NC Cooperative Extension. The site can be accessed through a link on the NCDA&CS home page www.ncagr.gov or the Amazing Grazing home page www.cefs.ncsu.edu/extension-andoutreach/amazing-grazing/ HAY ALERT WEBSITE
The Hay Alert website is not designed to collect and exchange payment, but rather it is a tool that allows farmers to list hay for sale and hay needed, with the goal of helping those with supply to connect with those in need. Other useful parts including a transportation section, "share the load" section, emergency equipment and services ads, and other information, all of which make this tool very useful for producers and their advisors to make sure their winter hay and feed needs are met.
Producers that lost hay or pasture in Florence should assess their hay needs now. If losses were due to inundation with flood waters, then producers need to make the first step of submitting a notice of loss to their local FSA office within 30 days after the loss. That date is October 15, so don't let it sneak up on you if you have losses due to flooding to report. If you have difficulty getting to the county office, this notice of loss can be submitted by making a phone call or sending an e-mail to the county FSA office. More information on available disaster programs from FSA and advice for farmers experiencing hay, pasture and grazing livestock losses can be found on the Extension Disaster Website; https://ncdisaster.ces.ncsu.edu
Hay that was not flooded but that was stored outside and exposed to a lot of rain will in most cases not be a total loss. Pasture that was flooded might be a complete loss depending on the species and the time it was underwater. In a phone report on October 3 a producer in Pender County observed that in his area all fescue pastures that were underwater more than 2 days were dead, but bahiagrass and bermudagrass pastures with similar flooding were green and growing after the waters receded. He is planning on overseeding these areas with oats and crimson clover, and then planning on planting back with bahiagrass. In the next few weeks any pastures that were severely impacted need to be assessed and overseeded with winter annuals so grazing is available by early spring. More detail about hay and pasture management following the flood can be found at the Amazing Grazing home page.
If you are unsure how to calculate your hay needs Cooperative Extension Agents at our Extension County Centers across the state can help you with that. If you are in a hay deficit you can put a "hay wanted" ad on the Hay Alert Website, and can also look through the "hay for sale" section to see what is available in your area. We will be monitoring the Hay Alert ads and will help when necessary, but the site is intended to be a farmer to farmer system.
Likewise if you have hay you would like to sell or donate you can list an ad in the hay for sale section. If you would like to assist farmers in need with donated hay or assistance by transporting hay to the affected areas, this site would be a good place to identify farmers who could use the help. You can watch this fall as farmers post their needs on the Hay Alert website and then reach out to those farmers directly to see how you might be of assistance. This is also a location you can place an ad if you wish to go help farmers with cleanup, fence repair, and other recovery activities.
When you place an ad on Hay Alert there are options for "baled hay for sale”, “baled hay needed”, "standing hay for sale", or "standing hay needed". If you have experienced losses due to the storm use the text box in the ad to describe your need, as we will advise people with hay to donate to look at the site and find folks in need.
One problem we have experienced in past emergency responses is the difficulty finding transportation for hay shipments. The transportation section gives contact information for transportation companies that are willing and ready to haul hay. If you don't need a whole truckload of hay you can use the "share a load" ad to try to find other producers to split a load with you.
Keep in mind there is a lot of hay and other alternative sources of feed for livestock in the state that was not damaged by Florence. The Hay Alert website is an important starting point for you as you plan your winter hay needs. Take a look at that and contact your county NC Cooperative Extension Office or other adviser to get help.
Disaster Programs from Farm Services Agency Important to Pasture-Based Livestock Farmers Impacted by Hurricane Florence.
As flood waters recede it is critical that farmers document losses they experienced as a result of Hurricane Florence. Damage to livestock, fences, and pastures should be documented both by a written affidavit describing the extent of the losses, and photos of the damage. Using maps to document locations of damage, high water level, etc. will be most useful. It is also very helpful to have an independent third party (Extension Agent, Animal Control, Sheriff’s Deputy) document damage/loss or at least take some photos. Other programs will be available for producers of other agricultural commodities (crop insurance).
This document is primarily intended for farmers raising pasture-based livestock including horses, beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, goats and other pastured species. As soon as possible after the farm is accessible you should call your local USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) office and let them know that you have experienced damage. They can advise you on how they want you to report the damage and fill out an application for help. With the amount of damage experienced in Florence, it is likely that some local offices may have been damaged, so the actual application process may vary with the county you are in.
It is important that you notify FSA before you start making permanent repairs, and it is also important that you document all costs you incur during recovery. Currently there are authorized and funded programs available from USDA-FSA to pay for lost livestock, fix damaged fences, remove storm debris, and to pay for damage to hay, feed, and pasture forage. These programs are described here briefly. Fact sheets on each of these programs are available on the Disaster Page at N.C. Cooperative Extension's website.
Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP). The LIP pays for livestock that were killed as a result of the storm. Eligibility is limited to livestock kept for commercial production and excludes animals kept as pets, for recreation (such as show animals). Most species of farm animals are eligible including cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, and a variety of exotic species. Payment rates are set at 75% of the national average value of these species, and a detailed payment schedule is available.
Emergency Conservation Program (ECP). The ECP pays for cleanup of storm debris and repair of direct damage to fences and farmland. Activities covered by ECP would include the removal of woody material, rocks, sand, trash and other materials present on land as a result of the storm. It also will help pay for the repair of fences, and the repair of land through grading, shaping or leveling. It also will pay for repair of damaged conservation structures such as ditches, and irrigation lines.
USDA Documents for Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees and Farm-Raised Fish Program
Dealing With Pasture, Hay, Feed and Animal Health Issues During Recovery From Hurricane Florence
Author: Matt Poore. Contributors from extension included Dan Wells, Adam Ross and Johnny Rogers.
As a result of Hurricane Florence, water is still high in
southeastern and south central NC with many fields flooded and farms
inaccessible. Farmers will be assessing damage to fields and property as
the water recedes, and we are getting many questions about the likely
impact on hay, pastures, feed and cattle health.
This information is intended to help farmers impacted by the storm
that experienced damage to their pasture-based production systems.
Livestock That Died During the Event
Any animals that died specifically as a result of the storm need to
be documented as soon as possible. Photos and a written affidavit to
document the losses will be needed to apply to the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP)
Damage to Hay
Pasture-based livestock producers need to assess and document loss
of hay as soon as it is safe to do so. If a producer lost hay they
should take photos of the bales (when bales are still on the property),
or the place the bales were stored.
Make sure to write down the number
of bales, type and quality of hay, and the estimated weight (or the size
i.e. 4 x 4, 4 x 5, etc.). Contact the FSA office and visit them with
this information as soon as possible.
Eligible hay losses will be covered under the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP).
To qualify for the program, hay had to be baled, and the program will
not cover hay that was cut and on the ground (not likely in this event
due to the very wet conditions that preceded Florence).
Also, this program only covers hay purchased to feed or hay cut to
feed. It does not cover hay that was cut to sell, so producers will
likely need to document that they do own livestock and planned on
feeding the hay that was lost. Farmers need to file a “notice of loss”
to the FSA office within 30 days of the loss.
Feeding damaged hay. After
Hurricane Floyd in 1999 we went to the flood zone after the water
receded to determine the impact on hay that had either been flooded
(totally or partially submerged in water) or that had been on higher
ground out of the flood, but still impacted by 10-15 inches of rain in a
In Matthew (2016) we also inspected hay that had been flooded to
various extents to see how much hay was left that was useful for
feeding. Hay that had been flooded in more than 1 foot of water was
found to be severely damaged with little usable forage remaining. The
amount of rotted hay, mold and possible contaminants in this flooded hay
makes it of little value, and potentially a hazard to livestock.
Hay that didn’t go under flood waters was in remarkably good shape
with only a couple of inches of damage to the outside of bales which was
consistent with what you see in normal outside storage.
Hay that only
had a few inches of flood water on it was damaged more than upland hay
but had some hay that was ok to feed. Our best advice on flood hay is
that if it was in at least 1 foot of water for one day then it is likely
in very poor shape and should not be fed, but rather counted as a loss.
If the flood water was less than one foot up on bales, then it is
likely that some of the hay can still be fed. It is appropriate to feed
the dry part of the hay that was not damaged by flood waters as long as
cattle are not forced to consume the wet and rotting portion of the
Due to this difference between hay that went under water and hay
that was on high ground, it is critical that producers carefully
document hay that was flooded, relative to hay that was simply heavily
It would be good to have an N.C. Cooperative Extension agent
or other official verify these losses in person. However, given the
number of producers impacted and difficulty traveling in the flood zone a
producer affidavit with photos is the immediate need.
Still it is a good idea for producers to call their N.C.
Cooperative Extension agent to tell them their situation and to get
advice, and then get them to visit when possible to help document losses
incurred. Hay that was flooded in storage barns should be removed as
soon as possible because it will start to heat and spontaneous
combustion is a real possibility. This hay could be used for erosion
control or composted, but likely will have little usable feed value,
depending on how much water it absorbed.
Any hay that was severely damaged by flood and determined to not be
suitable for feeding should be disposed of by burning or composting.
Many pastures were flooded and likely will be severely impacted.
Again, based on our experiences following Floyd and Matthew we would
expect bermudagrass and bahiagrass pastures to survive up to a week or
more under flood waters, but fescue pastures likely will not survive
more than a couple of days of submersion. Winter annuals that were
seeded before the hurricane also are unlikely to survive flooding, but
in many cases the annuals have not been planted yet.
Once it is possible to get back into the fields it will be critical
to remove the forage residue by cutting and baling, and then to get the
winter annuals drilled in so that they can contribute to winter feed
needs as planned. This is especially critical for producers who use
winter annuals as part of their animal waste management plan. It is
important to remove excessive residual forage so that the seeded annuals
can emerge and grow without a lot of shading and competition for
Depending on the extent of damage it might be possible to graze off
the residue, but producers should be aware that there will be issues
with dirt and other contaminants that came with the flood on the
standing forage, and livestock are unlikely to readily eat it. Setting
cutters very low (1-2 inches) will be important because much of the
existing vegetation will be lodged.
If there is not a great amount of residue and it is very flat on
the ground, then drilling through the residue is possible. In eastern
North Carolina it is possible to establish winter annuals until
mid-November, but the earlier planted the higher potential autumn and
winter feed production will be.
Because of the heavy leaching that has occurred, a nitrogen
application will be needed (about 50 lbs of N per acre is the maximum
level this late in the growing season).
The ELAP program will also cover
losses to pasture, and our understanding that is up to 150 grazing
days, but given that the water is receding quickly it is not clear how
that will be determined.
At a minimum, producers have reported their should have reported
pasture acres to the FSA office, will need to show on an aerial map
where the flood waters reached, and show some proof that livestock had
to be removed. Again, making notes on a map and keeping a log of the
timeline of when flood waters receded and the days of grazing lost is
If the last 30 days growth of bermudagrass was left in fields and
is lost for grazing then you can estimate about 3000-4000 lbs. of
grazable material per acre and that would be about 100-150 cow grazing
days per acre. Your N.C. Cooperative Extension agent or other advisor
can help you determine how many grazing days were lost. Grazing days are
reimbursed at a rate of $0.94/day regardless of the livestock species.
Physical damage to Fences and Grazing Lands
Removal of debris, repair of land, and repair of fences may be covered by the Emergency Conservation Program (ECP)
. This program is designed specifically for dealing with the cleanup following a storm and the repair of damage that occurred.
A field inspection by FSA is recommended to determine eligibility
for that program. It is critical that producers experiencing the loss
take good pictures and document the number of feet/miles of fence that
Feed that farmers had on hand (including commercial feed and
harvested commodities) will be covered by the ELAP program. Farmers need
to document the amount and type of feed that was damaged. Flood-damaged
feed, commodities, and crops are considered adulterated and need to be
considered a loss unless the damage is minimal and the farmers wishes to
submit a diversion plan to the NCDA&CS Food and Drug Division.
Alternative feeds. We have had several questions about feeding
alternatives given that most pasture is severely impacted and some
producers also have no hay to feed.
Cows can be fed on concentrates but
need some forage or other fiber source to stay in good digestive health.
Cows can be fed up to 15 lbs of whole shell corn or other
concentrates, and about 2 lbs of a protein supplement along with 5 lbs
of hay. If trying to limit-feed hay, the hay should be put out in such a
way that all animals can eat at the same time (by dispersing
square-baled hay or unrolling round bales. Sheep, goats and horses also
may be fed limited hay rations, but horses should receive a minimum of
10 lbs of hay, while sheep and goats should receive a minimum of 2 lbs
of hay daily.
Some producers have swine or poultry feed on hand that they may
wish to give to their livestock, but be aware Swine and Poultry Feeds
Should not be Fed to Grazing Livestock unless the company manufacturing
the feeds can attest that they do not contain ruminant meat and bone
meal (for all species but horses), and that they don’t contain any
antibiotics or other drugs not approved for cattle or horses.
Unfortunately, most commercial poultry and swine feed will contain
something that can’t be fed to cattle, horses, sheep or goats.
Note: As mentioned above, any feed damaged by flood waters is
considered adulterated until it is tested for possible contamination as
communicated recently by the NCDA&CS Food and Drug Division.
more information on how to manage flooded feed refer to the recent press release on feed and crop diversion requests.
Maintaining Health of Grazing Livestock
It is too early to know how many cattle, horses, sheep and goats
were lost as a direct result of the storm, but regardless of that
chronic health problems with livestock will be likely as the winter
progresses. Death loss as a result of the storm needs to be documented
with photos and reported to FSA as part of an application to the
Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP).
Following previous storms we documented in the weeks following the
floods severe dermatitis in some animals, and that is thought to be due
to contact with the flood waters, and potentially to the ingestion of
During the winter months we also observed animals in
poor body condition, animals that had very weak calves, and higher than
normal sickness and death loss.
These conditions can be blamed to some extent on chronic
malnutrition during the aftermath of the storm. Once it is possible,
start feeding animals to regain the body condition they lost during the
flood. Pregnant animals will need a good supply of protein and energy
for normal fetal development, so especially pay attention to them. Be
aware that feeding levels for animals that have been short on feed for
several days or a week need to be higher than normal maintenance rations
usually fed this time of year.
Animals that have lost significant body condition due to feed
restriction will need to gain weight significantly and are likely to
need supplemental concentrate in addition to good quality hay or
pasture. Make sure that a good quality mineral supplement is being
provided and that the cattle eating it.
These are always our
recommendations going into winter, but this year it will be especially
important given the elevated level of stress on the livestock.
Livestock will be vulnerable to a number of diseases following a
flooding event including respiratory disease, clostridial diseases (like
black leg), leptospirosis, and infections due to cuts and loss of
integrity of skin and hooves as a result of prolonged exposure to
standing water or wet conditions. These diseases may result from either
increased environmental exposure to the pathogens in question, or due to
comingling with other livestock that carry the diseases.
Livestock on a good health program will have been vaccinated for
most of these diseases, improving the likely outcome when they undergo
stress and pathogen exposure. If the animals impacted by the storm have
not been on a good health program (including vaccination for clostridial
diseases, leptospirosis and respiratory diseases) should be vaccinated
once they have been contained and have received adequate feed for
Developing a relationship with a local veterinarian is an
incredibly important part of a livestock management program. If a
producer does not enjoy that kind of relationship, they are encouraged
to identify a veterinarian and develop a proactive health program.
Remember, maintaining an adequate nutritional plane of impacted animals
is a key to development of a high level of immunity to disease when
vaccines are administered.
Farmers experiencing damage to livestock and livestock production
system need to document losses as soon after the event as possible and
provide a “notice of loss” to their local Farm Services Agency county
Most damage to forages (hay and pasture), feed, and infrastructure
will be covered by one of the FSA programs available. Nutritional
management of impacted animals is critical to a positive outcome in the
months following the event. For more help with the issues described in
this communication contact your local N.C. Cooperative Extension agent,
veterinarian, or other advisor.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
WEDNESDAY, SEPT. 12, 2018
CONTACT:Andrea Ashby, directorNCDA&CS Public Affairs
919-707-3004 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org
NCDA&CS activates hotline to help farmers impacted by Hurricane Florence RALEIGH
The N.C. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has
activated its hotline to connect farmers with resources that can assist
with agricultural emergencies. The toll-free number is 1-866-645-9403.
The hotline operates 7 a.m. to 7 p.m.“Although this
storm may change course, we are monitoring the situation closely,” said
Agriculture Commissioner Steve Troxler. “We advise everyone to take this
situation seriously and take proper safety measures. We are prepared to
work with our state and local partners to help our agricultural
community as needed.”Farmers can also find recovery resources on the department’s disaster Web pages, www.ncagr.gov/disaster.
NCDA&CS Public Affairs Division, Andrea Ashby, Director
Mailing Address:1001 Mail Service Center, Raleigh NC 27699-1001
Physical Address: 2 West Edenton Street, Raleigh NC 27601
Phone: (919) 707-3001; FAX: (919) 733-5047